Terpenes 101: Demystify them and understand their effects
Updated: Dec 5, 2022
Have you ever heard of the famous terpenes when talking about cannabis?
Cannabis connoisseurs rely heavily on the aromas of their herbs to determine which strains they prefer, as well as judging them by their flavors.
In reality, what these cannabis enthusiasts are evaluating are the terpenes found in the plant.
In the following lines, we help you FINALLY demystify everything surrounding terpenes and unravel the main terpenes that are present in the cannabis plant as well as their effects on human health.
What are terpenes exactly?
Terpenes are aromatic molecules with a very pronounced odor that give various plants, flowers and trees a wide range of scents and flavors. They are found almost everywhere in nature, where more than 20 000 varieties of terpenes coexist.
The cannabis plant itself naturally produces more than 100 different terpenes, all of which are gathered in its trichomes (the tiny, transparent hairs found on cannabis flowers and leaves). Originally, these molecules serve as a defense mechanism against insect and animal pests, in addition to attracting pollinating insects (1).
Terpenes are mainly responsible for the different aromas of cannabis such as lavender, citrus and earth smell, and even the classic skunk smell (2).
Comparable to essential oils (3), they are traditionally recognized for their important virtues and can have many beneficial effects on health, by acting directly on the brain cells to modulate their activity (4). The terpene profile is therefore a very important element to consider when you buy your cannabis, especially to know if the cannabis strain you chose will have energizing or sedative effects (5).
Terpenes are a key part of what makes every strain of weed unique. These molecules act in symbiosis with cannabinoids to create specific and often very promising medical effects (6).
The main terpenes and their benefits
As mentioned above, more than 100 varieties of terpenes exist in the cannabis plant. We have chosen to present you the 7 main ones, taken from the book CanDrinks: Cocktails & Cannabis, which are found most often in the weed plant.
1- CaryophylLEne or « bEta-caryophyllene »
Aromas: Peppery spices and wood
Caryophyllene is a terpene that reminds of the spicy smells of cinnamon, cloves and wood. It is a very particular terpene because it is also able to interact with receptors of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. It thus plays on the perception and the regulation of the pains and the inflammations (7). We can therefore say that in addition to being one of the main terpenes of cannabis, it could almost be considered a cannabinoid.
Many potential beneficial effects are associated with caryophyllene:
Analgesic properties ;
Anti-inflammatory properties ;
Pain relief ;
Stress reduction ;
Treatment of anxiety and depression ;
Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease ;
Treatment of ulcers (8).
A study conducted in China in 2014 (9) has shown that the use of this terpene could offer very promising results in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (10). It can also combat the symptoms of arthritis and other neuropathic pain (11).
Although almost all strains of weed contain caryophyllene, you can find a high concentration of this terpene in strains of cannabis such as: